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New Forms of and Risks in Mining Projects: The Voluntary and Extraordinary Contribution of the Mining Companies in Peru (English and Spanish Versions)

Hans A. Flury, Mining and Oil and Gas Law, Development, and Investment - Book 1 (2007)

The Republic of Peru is located in the central and occidental part of South America on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and limits by the North with the Republics of Ecuador and Colombia, by the East with Brazil, by the South-East with Bolivia and by the South with Chile. It has an area of 1'285,215.6 km2 and its capital is the city of Lima. The Political Constitution of 1993 expresses that the water domain of Peru extends up to 200 maritime miles to the West.

According to the National Census of 2005, Peru has 27,219,264 habitants; which gives a population density media of 21.2 inhabitants per km2, with a growth rate of 1.4% per annum. The urban population equals 72.3% and the rural population to 27.7%.

The most extended language among Peruvians (80.3% as first language) is Spanish, followed by the native languages such as Quechua and Aymara, which are the most spoken in Peru.

The Republic of Peru is a presidential unitary State. The country is divided, successively, in departments (States), provinces and districts. The country is currently in a regionalization process by which regions are created, replacing the departments; therefore Peru is politically divided in 26 Regions; these in Provinces and the last in Districts.

The organization of the State is structured according to the principle of separation of powers, made up of three (3) differe